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Skill 1 (Subject and Verb)

Kita semua tahu bahwa dalam sebuah kalimat bahasa Inggris, harus ada minimal sebuah Subject dan sebuah Verb.
Problem yang biasanya muncul sehubungan dengan Subject dan Verb adalah:
  1. Subject atau Verbnya tidak ada.
  2. Subject dan Verbnya tidak ada, atau
  3. Extra Subject and Extra Verb.

Contoh 1:

………………..was ringing continuously for hours.

(A) Loudly
(B) In the morning
(C) The phone
(D) The bells

Analisa:

  • Kalimat di atas memiliki Verb yaitu was ringing, tapi tidak memiliki Subject.
  • Dari pilihan jawaban; (A) Loudly dan (B) In the morning salah karena keduanya adalah adverb. Jawaban (D) The bells juga salah karena bells adalah plural dan tidak sesuai dengan was ringing yang berbentuk singular verb. Jawaban terbaik adalah (C) The phone karena phone singular verb dan sesuai dengan singular verb was ringing.

 Contoh 2:

Newspapers _______ every morning and every evening.

(A) delivery
(B) are delivered
(C) on time
(D) regularly

Analisa:

  • Kalimat diatas memiliki Subject yaitu Newspapers, tapi tidak memiliki Verb.
  • Jawaban (A) delivery, (C) on time dan (D) regularly adalah salah karena mereka bukan subject. Jawaban (B) are delivered benar karena mereka adalah verb.

Skill 2 (Object of Preposition)

An object of a preposition adalah noun (kata benda) atau pronoun (kata ganti) yang terletak setelah preposition (kata depan), seperti in, at, of to, by, behind, dan on yang befungsi membentuk sebuah prepositional phrase.
Contoh:
The trip (to the island) (on Saturday) will last (for three hours).
Kalimat diatas berisi tiga buah object of preposition; Island sebagai object of preposition dari to; Saturday sebagai object of preposition dari on dan three hours sebagai object of preposition dari for.
Padsa Structure Section TOEFL Test, object of preposition bisa membingungkan karena banyak yang menduga bahwa object of preposition adalah subject dari kalimat tersebut.

Contoh:

To Mike ____ was a big surprise.

(A) really
(B) the party
(C) funny
(D) when

Analisa:

  • Dari kalimat diatas, harus dipahami bahwa Mike (noun) bukalah Subject tapi object of preposition dari To.
  • Subject dari kalimat diatas tidak ada, sedangkan Verbnya adalah was.
  • Karena yang dibutuhkan adalah Subject, maka jawaban terbaik adalah (B), the party. Sedangkan (A), (C), dan (D) salah karena mereka bukanlah Subject.

Harus dingat bahwa:

Preposition diikuti oleh noun atau pronoun yang kemudian disebut object of preposition.
Jika sebuah kata adalah object of preposition, maka kata tersebut bukanlah sebuah Subject.

Exercise 2:

1. The name of the baby in the crib is Jack. (C)

Analisa:

  • The Crib bukanlah subjedct, tapi hanyalah Object of Preposition dari in.
  • Sedangkan Subjectnya adalah name dan Vernya adalah is.

2. By the next meeting of the class need to turn in the papers.( I)

Analisa:

  • the class bukanlah Subject, tapi hanya object of preposition dari of.
  • Kalimat diatas tidak memiliki Subject, tapi memiliki verb yaitu need to turn.
  • Kalimat yang benar seharusnya By the next meeting of the class they need to turn in the paper.

 

Skill 3 (Present Participles)

Present Participle adalah Verb + ing.

Contohnya:  studying, driving, cooking

Penggunaan Present participle pada Structure section TOEFL test seringkali membingungkan karena fungsingya yang bisa sebagai part of a verb (bagian dari kata kerja) atau adjective (kata sifat).
1. Sebagai bagian dari kata kerja (Part of a verb)
.   Present participle (verb+ing) akan berfungsi sebagai part of a verb jika digunakan bersamaan dengan tobe (am, is, are, was, and were).
Contoh:   
The train is arriving at the station now.
  The students are talking in the classroom.

Analisa:

  • arriving adalah part of a verb karena ditemani oleh is (to be).
  • talking adalah part of a verb karena ditemani oleh are (to be)

2. Sebagai adjective (Kata Sifat)

Present participle (Verb + Ing) berfungsi sebagai adjective apabila tidak ditemani oleh to be (am, is, are, was and were).
Contoh:
The train arriving at the station now is an hour late.
The students talking in the class look very happy.
 Analisa:
  • arriving is adjective karena tidak ditemani oleh be. Sedangkan, Subject kalimat diatas adalah train dan verbnya adalah is.
  • talking adalah adjective karena tidak ditemani oleh be. Subject dari kalimat diatas adalah students dan verbnya adalah look.

Lihat contoh dibawah ini.

The film ____ appearing at the local theater is my favorite.

(A) now
(B) is
(C) it
(D) was

Analisa:

  • appearing bukanlah part of a verb tapi adjective.
  • Subject nya adalah film dan verbnya adalah is.
  • Jawaban (B), (C) atau (D) salah karena  kalimat diatas sudah memiliki verb.
  • Jawaban terbaik adalah (A) now.

 

EXERCISE 3:

Look at the following sentences and Check if they are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. The crying baby needs to be picked up. (C)
           ADJ.
     Analisa:
  • Kalimat diatas sudah benar karena crying berfungsi sebagai adjective.
  • Subject dari kalimat diatas adalah baby, sedangkan verb nya adalah needs to be picked up
2. The clothes are lying the floor should go into the washing machine. (I)
                          VERB
    Analisa:
  • kalimat diatas salah karena are lying seharusnya lying dan berfungsi sebagai adjective bukan bagian dari kata kerja (part of a verb)..
  • Sedangkan kalimat yang benar adalah  The clothes lying the floor should go into the washing machine.
3. The waitress bringing the steaming soup to the waiting diners. (I)
    Analisa:
  • Kalimat diatas salah karena bringing seharusnya is bringing dan berfungsi sebagai part of a verb bukan adjective.
  • Kalimat yang benar seharusnya adalah  The waitress is bringing the steaming soup to the waiting diners.
4. Most of the striking workers are walking the picket line. (C)
    Analisa:
  • Kalimat diatas benar karena striking berfungsi sebagai adjective dan walking sebagai part of a verb.
  • Subject dari kalimat diatas adalah workers.
5. For her birthday, the child is getting a talking doll. (C)
Analisa:

  • Kalimat diatas sudah benar karena getting berfungsi sebagai part of a verb dan setelah ditambahkan is (tobe) menjadi complete verb.
  • Sedangkan Subject dari kalimat diatas adalah the child.

 

Skill 4 (Past Participles)

Past participle adalah Verb III dari kata kerja.

Contoh: taught, studied, left, cooked
Penggunaan Past Participle pada Structure Questions seringkali membingungkan karena neniliki dua fungsi, yaitu part of a verb (bagian dari kata kerja) dan adjective (kata sifat).
1. Sebagai part of a verb
Past participle akan berfungsi sebagai part of a verb (bagian dari kata kerja) apabila ditemani oleh have, has, had and be (am, is, are, was, were).
Contoh:
  • The mailman has left a letter in the mailbox. (Left is part of a verb)
  • The classes were taught by Professor Smith. (Taught is part of a verb)
      Analisa:
  • Pada kalimat pertama, left adalah bagian dari kata kerja karena ditemani oleh has.
  • Pada kalimat kedua, taught adalah bagian kari kata kerja karena ditemani oleh be (were)
2. Sebagai adjective
 Past Participle berfungsi sebagai kata sifat (adjective) apabila tidak ditemani dengan have, has, had atau be (am, is, are, dan were).
Contoh:
  • The letter left in the mailbox was for me. (Left is ADJECTIVE)
  • The classes taught by Professor Smith were very interesting. (Taught is ADJECTIVE)
Analisa:
  • left adalah adjective karena tidak ditemani oleh has/have or to be. Sedangkan Subject dari kalimat pertama adalah The letter dan Verb nya adalah was.
  • taught adalah adjective karena tidak ditemani oleh has/have atau to be. Sedangkan Subject dan verb dari kalimat kedua adalah The classes dan were.

Contoh dibawah ini menunjukan bagaimana past participle bisa membingungkan.

The bread _____ baked this morning smelled delicious.

(A) has
(B) was
(C) it
(D) just
Analisa:
  • baked bukanlan part of a verb, tapi adjective. Verb dari kalimat diatas adalah smelled dan Subject nya adalah The bread.
  • Jawaban (A) dan (B) salah karena baked adjective dan tidak membutuhkan helping verb.
  • Jawaban (C) salah karena kalimat diatas sudah memiliki Subject.
  • Jawaban terbaik adalah just.
EXERCISE 4: Each of the following sentences contains one or more past participles. Circle the past participles, and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. The food is served in this restaurant is delicious. (Incorrect)
    Analisa:
  • is served harusnya served saja karena berfungsi sebagai adjective.
  • Sedangkan Subject nya adalah The food dan Verb nya adalah IS.
  • Kalimat yang benar adalah The food served in this restaurant is delicious.
2. The plane landed on the deserted runway. (Correct)
    Analisa:
  • Subject is The place and Verb is landed
  • Deserted adalah  adjective
3. The unexpected guests arrived just at dinnertime. (Correct)

Analisa:

  • unexpected adalah adjective.
  • Subject nya adalah guests dan Verb nya arrived.
4. The courses are listed in the catalogue are required courses. (Incorrect)
Analisa:

  • are listed seharusnya hanya listed dan berfungsi sebagai adjective bukan part of a verb.
  • Subject nya adalah courses dan verbnya are required.
5. The teacher found the lost exam. (Correct)
Analisa:

  • lost adalah adjective.
  • Subject nya adalah teacher sedangkan verbnya adalah found.

 

Skill 5 (Coordinate Connector)

Yang dimaksud dengan Coordinate Connector adalah AND, BUT, OR, or SO

Banyak kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris yang terdiri dari dua klausa ( Klausa adalah kelompok kata yang paling sedikit terdiri dari satu Subject dan satu Verb (Predikat).
Ketika ada dua kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris, kita harus menggabungkannya dengan benar. Saalahs atu cara untuk menggabungkan dua buah kalusa adalah dengan menggunakan AND, BUT, OR, or SO.

Contoh:

  1. The sun was shining and the sky was blue.
  2. The sky was blue, but it was very cold.
  3. It may rain tonight, or it may be clear.
  4. It was raining outside, so I took my umbrella.

Analisa:

  • Keempat kalimat diatas terdiri dari dua klausa dan semuanya di hubungkan dengan sebuah Coordinate Coonector dan sebuah Comma.
Contoh berikut ini akan menunjukan bagaimana Coordinate Connector di Tes di Structure Questions pada TOEFL Test.


Contoh:

I forgot my coat, ____ I got very cold.

(A) then
(B) so
(C) later
(D) as a result

Analisa:

  • Kalimat diatas memiliki dua  buah klausa:  I forgot my coat dan I got very cold. Untuk menghubungkannya, kita harus menggunakan sebuah Coonector. Kata Then (A), later (C), dan as a result (D) bukanlah Connector. Jadi jawaban terbaik adalah (B) karena so bisa menghubungkan kedua klausa tersebut dengan benar.

EXERCISE 5:

Exercise 5 dibawah ini fokus pada permasalahan Coordinate Connector.  Baca kalimatnya dan tentukan apakah jawabannya Correct (C) atau Incorrect (C).

1. The lawn needs water every day, or it will turn brown. (C)
    Analisa:
  • Kedua Klausa diatas sudah benar, begitu juga dengan Coordinate Connectornya.

 

2. The book was not long, it difficult to read. (I)
    Analisa:
  • Klausa kedua tidak memiliki verb (is) dan  Connector.
  • Kalimat yang benar adalah The book was not long, but it is difficult to read.

 

3. It was raining, so decided not to go camping. (I)
    Analisa:
  • Klausa/kalimat kedua tidak memiliki Subject. Tapi sudah memiliki connector, so.
  • Kalimat yang benar seharusnya adalah It was raining, so I decided not to go camping.

 

4. The material has been cut, and the pieces have been sewn together.(C)
    Analisa:
  • Kedua kalimat/klausa sudah benar begitu juga dengan connectornya

 

5. The patient took all the medicine, he did not feel much better.(I)
    Analisa:
  • Kedua kalimat/klausa diatas sudah benar, tapi belum ada connectornya.
  • Kalimat yang benar seharusnya adalah The patient took all the medicine, but he did not feel much better.

 

 

 

source:

http://www.belajartoefl.net/2011/08/structure-questions-skill-1-subject-and.html

http://www.belajartoefl.net/2011/08/structure-question-skill-2-object-of.html

http://www.belajartoefl.net/2011/08/structure-question-skill-3-present.html

http://www.belajartoefl.net/2011/08/structure-question-skill-4-past.html

http://www.belajartoefl.net/2011/09/structure-skill-coordinate-connector.html

 

Epson PowerLite Home Cinema 5010
LCD 3D 1080p Projector

Bill Livolsi, November 30, 2011

The Epson PowerLite Home Cinema 5010 is Epson’s brand new 3D 1080p projector for home theater. Like the Home Cinema 8700 UB, the 5010 has impressive contrast and very high maximum lumen output. This allows the projector to fill large screens in dark rooms or effectively combat ambient light in living rooms and other shared spaces.

Where the Home Cinema 3010 was a bit of a departure for Epson, the 5010 is a return to form. The projector’s 2.1:1 zoom lens and extensive H/V lens shift give it some of the best placement flexibility in its price class, while Frame Interpolation and Super Resolution both add subtle enhancements to an already great image. With street prices hovering around $2700, the Home Cinema 5010 is a strong contender in this year’s home theater line-up.

source: http://www.projectorcentral.com/epson_home_cinema_5010_3d_projector_review.htm

 

opinion:

its a good viewer / projector that will satisfy you when you use it.but its a bit expensive

 

leadership

leadership development methods and tips

Explaining and understanding the nature of good leadership is probably easier than practising it. Good leadership requires deep human qualities, beyond conventional notions of authority.

In the modern age good leaders are an enabling force, helping people and organizations to perform and develop, which implies that a sophisticated alignment be achieved – of people’s needs, and the aims of the organization.

The traditional concept of a leader being the directing chief at the top of a hierachy is nowadays a very incomplete appreciation of what true leadership must be.

Effective leadership does not necessarily require great technical or intellectual capacity. These attributes might help, but they are not pivotal.

Good leadership in the modern age more importantly requires attitudes and behaviours which characterise and relate to humanity.

The concept of serving is fundamental to the leadership role. Good leadership involves serving the organization or group and the people within it. Ineffective leaders tend to invert this principle and consider merely that the leader must be served by the people. This faulty idea fosters the notion that leadership as an opportunity to take: to acquire personal status, advantage, gain, etc., at the expense of others, which is grossly wrong. Leadership is instead an opportunity to give; to serve the organization, and crucially the people too. The modern notions of ‘servant leader’ and ‘servant leadership’ are attributed to Robert K Greenleaf (in his 1970 essay The Servant as Leader) however the philosophy and concept of leadership being a serving function rather than one that is served, is very old indeed and found in ancient civilisations and religious writings.

Leadership is centrally concerned with people. Of course leadership involves decisions and actions relating to all sorts of other things, but leadership is special compared to any other role because of its unique responsibilty for people – i.e., the followers of the leader – in whatever context leadership is seen to operate.

Many capabilities in life are a matter of acquiring skills and knowledge and then applying them in a reliable way. Leadership is quite different. Good leadership demands emotional strengths and behavioural characteristics which can draw deeply on a leader’s mental and spiritual reserves.

The leadership role is an inevitable reflection of people’s needs and challenges in modern life. Leadership is therefore a profound concept, with increasingly complex implications, driven by an increasingly complex and fast-changing world.

Leadership and management are commonly seen as the same thing, which they are not. Leadership is also misunderstood to mean directing and instructing people and making important decisions on behalf of an organization. Effective leadership is much more than these.

Good leaders are followed chiefly because people trust and respect them, rather than the skills they possess. Leadership is about behaviour first, skills second.

This is a simple way to see how leadership is different to management:

  • Management is mostly about processes.
  • Leadership is mostly about behaviour.

We could extend this to say:

  • Management relies heavily on tangible measurable capabilities such as effective planning; the use of organizational systems; and the use of appropriate communications methods.
  • Leadership involves many management skills, but generally as a secondary or background function of true leadership. Leadership instead relies most strongly on less tangible and less measurable things like trust, inspiration, attitude, decision-making, and personal character. These are not processes or skills or even necessarily the result of experience. They are facets of humanity, and are enabled mainly by the leader’s character and especially his/her emotional reserves.

Another way to see leadership compared with management, is that leadership does not crucially depend on the type of management methods and processes a leaders uses; leadership instead primarily depends on the ways in which the leader uses management methods and processes.

Good leadership depends on attitudinal qualities, not management processes.

Humanity is a way to describe these qualities, because this reflects the leader’s vital relationship with people.

Qualities critical for a leader’s relationship with his/her people are quite different to conventional skills and processes

 

source: http://www.businessballs.com/leadership.htm

 

Opinion:

everything in that article is so true.it tell you how to build or find a good leadership and also tell you about the difference between leadership and management

Komodo National Park finished in the top seven finalists in the New7Wonders campaign, according to a interim tally on the New7Wonders Foundation’s website.

Official voting closed on Friday at around 11 a.m. GMT.

The other interim winners include the Amazon Rainforest in South America, Halong Bay in Vietnam, Iguazu Falls on the border of Brazilian state of Parana and Argentine province of Misiones, Jeju Island in Korea, Puerto Princesa Underground River in the Philippines and Table Mountain in South Africa.

The foundation said that SMS votes submitted in each country were still being tallied and that the results could still change during the verification process.

The foundation announced the seven winners alphabetically, pending a final ranking based on their scores.

The winners will be officially announced at a ceremony in early 2012.

Source: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/11/12/komodo-among-new7wonders-top-seven-finalists.html

opinion:

Komodo National Park in Pulau Komodo, Indonesia, is undeniably be the only place on earth where Komodo Dragon lives for hundreds of years. Like many other world wonders in the world, such particular place would be well-known by it famous state achieved, which mean, there’s no other places having a same condition to such, or, no comparison, in short.

The voting process conducted by New7Wonders Foundation did not having ultimate fairness for it is not widely known by public all over the world. Though the foundation claimed that they’re having the office in Switzerland, once mentioned in a news that the foundation have an unclear validity status. Therefore, the Government of Indonesia through it’s embassy in Switzerland has conducted an investigation on a validity status of New7Wonders Foundation. The investigation resulted with consideration that New7Wonders Foundation was established in Panama, having office in Switzerland, and the lawyers are in England. However, the investigation also found out that the public or citizen of Switzerland does not recognize the existence of New7Wonders Foundation.

Previously, some of the places included in the well-publicly-known “The Wonders of the World” were compiled by UNESCO; one organization under the United Nations dedicated to peace, safety and conservation, whereas, others were compiled by the media and public opinion. All these places of wonders including the ancient, modern, as well as natural wonders of the world, it is all be worthy to be visited.

opinion:
in my opinion, his statement is really unrealistic. i’m sure he know the difference of “genangan” and “banjir”.why he have to said that.in Jakarta “banjir” is sensitive case.maybe he didnt meant it, but with the word “genangan” i think its too much. next time, As Governor he should be more wise when going to give a statement in public

 

comment:

i think they as representatives of people they shouldn’t acted like that. they shouldn’t sleep when in meeting or in the office.they should do their duties as representatives nicely & responsible.if they aren’t then how people will believe them anymore? because what they do will affect other people

Type I

Form Type I.

if-clause  + main clause
If / Unless / If …….not  + future I
+ present tense  + shall / will / can / may / might + verb 
If I learn my vocabulary,    I’ll get a good mark
or the other way round: 
main clause + if-clause
shall / will / can / may / might + verb   + present tense     simple present
I’ll get a good mark.    if I learn my vocabulary
Function open condition:Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition
You’ll catch the train if you leave before ten.
Curriculum Lehrplan:

  • Type I and II in form 7 and 8
  • if vs. when

Lehrbuch:

  • previously done:
  • future I 
  • present tense
Difficulties 1. form:

  • if – plays, – main clause -future I
  • if – unless

2. function

  • open conditions
  • What’s condition – what’s consequence?

3. interlingual interferences

  • No future tense in if-clauses
  • if vs. when
  • unless

4. other difficulties

  • position of the if-clause
Situations
  • operating instructions
  • making appointments
  • warnings or possible rewards
  • suggestions

Type II

Form 
Type II: 
if-clause
+ main clause
If / Unless / If …….not past tense,   + conditional I:+ should / would / could / ‘d / might + verb 
If I learnt my vocabulary,     I’d get a good mark.
or the other way round: 
main clause + if-clause
I’d get a good mark    if I learnt my vocabulary

If-clauses in front position are more emphatic.
If-clauses in front position get a comma.

Function Hypothetical statements 

    • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future

We’d have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.

    • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present

We’d buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.

Curriculum  Lehrplan:

  • Type II in form 7 or  8
  • if I were you,

Lehrbuch:

  • previously done:
  • past tense 
  • if-clause type I
Difficulties 1. form:

  • if – played, – conditional I
  • if – unless

2. function

  • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future
  • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present: “virtual reality”
  • no time indicated by past tense = today or tomorrow

3. interlingual interferences

  • No conditional tense in if-clauses
  • if vs. when
  • unless

4. other difficulties

  • ‘were’ instead of ‘was’ (rest of old conjunctive)
  • position of the if-clause
Situations
  • dreams and nightmares
  • mock examinations: testing a person
  • exaggerated timidity (But if the bridge fell down….)
  • reproaches

Type III

Form
Type III:
if-clause 
+ main clause 
If / Unless / If …….not + past perfect, + conditional II
 If I had + -ed or 3rd form,  + should / would/ could / might + have + verb+ed or   3rd form
If I had learnt my vocabulary,    I would have got a good mark.
or the other way round:  .
main clause + if-clause
should / would/ could / might + have + verb -ed or 3rd form    if I had + -ed or 3rd form 
I would have got a good mark    if I had learnt my vocabulary

 

Function If- clause:       unreal condition: the condition can’t be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn’t.
main clause:  the consequence can’t take place any more, because the condition couldn’t be fulfilled.If I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark. (So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible  consequence)
or the other way round:
I would have got a better mark (So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible consequence)if I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition)
Curriculum  Lehrplan:
                    form 9 + 10 (repetition)Lehrbuch: 
                     Type I and II in form 7 and 8 
                      if vs. when 
Difficulties 1. interlingual interferences                          No conditional tense in if-clauses 
                         if vs. when 
                         unless 

2. other difficulties 

                         position of the if-clause 

Situations
  • dreams and nightmares about the past
  • castles in the air in the past
  • reproaches
  • self-blaming 

Wish Sentences

The verb wish expresses a desire for a situation that does not exist right now in the present. A wish is a desire to change a real situation into an unreal one. The unreal situation is expressed in the simple past. For example:
I wish I lived in a house. I live in an apartment.
Wish sentences often express regret about a situation that you would like to change e.g.
A:Can you help me? B: No, I’m sorry. I wish I could, but I have an appointment.

In order to express future actions that you want to happen , you use would e.g.
I wish the bus would come. I’m cold.
I wish you’d have a car to take me to the beach.
I wish I were thin.
I wish I hadn’t said that. (If fact, I said it)

Source: http://www.kfmaas.de/gram_if.html

http://netgrammar.altec.org/Units/Unit_15/a101c15_201000.html

 

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